“Most heavy industries require enormous quantities of heat at high temperature. In many cases (including the cement, iron and steel, and chemical industries), the core industrial processes involve smelting ore, breaking strong chemical bonds or increasing a product’s energy content. These processes produce substantial GHG emissions. ….
The needs of the specific industries themselves vary considerably and are extremely heterogenous (even within one major production facility). Three requirements are key:
- Temperature: Industrial products are made through the application of high-grade heat to feedstocks. Temperature demands vary significantly from around 200 °C to nearly 2,000 °C.
- Flux: Industrial heat demands must be met with high (and commonly continuous) heat flux into the system. The flux must be large enough to sustain reasonable production.
- Reliability: Most heavy industrial production occurs at large facilities with high capital costs (e.g., refinery, steel mill). Most of these facilities operate with very high capacity factors, commonly 60-95%. As such, heat supply must be dispatchable and available both throughout the day and throughout the year.”
ICEF Industrial Heat Decarbonization Roadmap, Innovation for Cool Earth Forum, Dec. 2019, p. 1